[DRAFT] 2024-2025 Bulletin: Policies and General Information 
    
    Jul 13, 2024  
[DRAFT] 2024-2025 Bulletin: Policies and General Information

Substance Abuse Prevention and Policy for Students


Claremont Graduate University’s policy over the illicit use of drugs and the abuse of alcohol results from the serious health hazards associated with substance abuse and from the potential legal penalties for those convicted of unlawful use, possession or distribution of these substances. The University’s primary approach in preventing substance abuse by students is to educate them regarding its medical and psychological hazards and to increase student sensitivity to the ways in which it interferes with the growth of a community where substance abuse is not condoned, and where those with related problems are provided with assistance. Claremont Graduate University is committed to providing a healthy and safe environment for all students. As part of the University’s commitment to the well-being of our individual students and the larger community.

Claremont Graduate University prohibits the use, possession, cultivation, manufacture, sale or transfer of illegal drugs on University property or at campus-sponsored activities. Students are expected to act lawfully with respect to the possession and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Consumption of alcohol by individuals under 21 is prohibited.

Health Risks Associated with the Use of Illicit Drugs and the Abuse of Alcohol
The consumption of drugs and alcohol can have significant negative effects on health.

Alcohol consumption causes a number of marked changes in behavior. Even low doses significantly impair the judgment and coordination required to drive a car safely, increasing the likelihood that the driver will be involved in an accident. High doses of alcohol may cause respiratory depression and death. Repeated use of alcohol can lead to dependence, and cause serious damage to the nervous and circulatory systems, mental disorders, and other health problems.

Drugs and alcohol are chemicals, and any chemical is potentially harmful. Drugs by their very nature cause reactions in the body. Possible effects from non-therapeutic drug use include: convulsions, memory loss, psychosis, anxiety, delusions, hallucinations, and even death.

All drugs are toxic and poisonous when abused. Health risks of drug abuse include, but are not limited to, sleep disorders, confusion, hallucinations, paranoia, depression, malnutrition, liver and kidney damage, cardiac irregularities, hepatitis and neurological damage.  HIV infection associated with intravenous drug use is a prevalent hazard.

Drug use during pregnancy may result in fetal damage and birth defects causing hyperactivity, neurological abnormalities, and developmental difficulties. Consumption of alcohol by women during pregnancy may lead to fetal alcohol syndrome.

Facts and Health Risks Related to Alcohol
  • The average serving of wine (5 oz), beer (12 oz), or hard alcohol/liquor (1.5 oz) contains approximately the same amount of alcohol.
  • It takes approximately one hour for the body to process (oxidize) the amount of alcohol in an average serving.
  • If a person drinks slowly (one average drink per hour or less), there is less likelihood of intoxication. A faster rate of consumption will produce a buildup of alcohol in the bloodstream, resulting in intoxication.
  • Eating before and while consuming alcohol will slow the rate at which alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream.
  • Diluting alcohol with another liquid such as water slows down the absorption, but mixing alcohol with a carbonated beverage increases the rate of absorption.
  • The body oxidizes alcohol at a fairly constant rate. Nothing will accelerate the sobering-up process. You can give an intoxicated person gallon of coffee, for example, and the result will not be sobriety, but a wide-awake intoxication.
  • Alcohol depresses the central nervous system. The relaxed “high” people often feel from drinking results from the alcohol depressing upper levels of the brain that store learned behavior such as judgment and self-control. Higher levels of alcohol depress deeper levels of the brain producing increased impairment.
  • Consuming alcohol while taking over-the-counter or prescription medications or illegal drugs is dangerous and presents serious health and safety concerns.
  • Binge drinking is defined by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention as a pattern of drinking that brings a person’s blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to .08 grams percent or above. This typically happens when men consume five or more drinks and when women consume four or more drinks in about two hours.
  • Binge drinking is associated with many health problems including unintentional injuries (falls, burns, drowning, crashes), intentional injuries (fighting, sexual assault), alcohol poisoning, liver disease, sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy.
Health Risks Information:  Marijuana

The following information on health risks is from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:

Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States, and marijuana use may have a wide range of health effects on the body and brain.

About 1 in 10 marijuana users may experience some form of addiction. For people who begin using before the age of 18, that number rises to 1 in 6. People who are addicted to marijuana may also be at a higher risk of other negative consequences of using the drug, such as problems with attention, memory, and learning. Some people who are addicted may need to smoke more and more marijuana to get the same high. It is also important to be aware that the amount of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in marijuana (i.e., marijuana potency or strength) has increased over the past few decades. The higher the THC content, the stronger the effects on the brain. In addition, some methods of using marijuana (e.g., dabbing, edibles) may deliver very high levels of THC to the user.

In many cases, marijuana is smoked in the form hand-rolled cigarettes (joints), in pipes or water pipes (bongs), in bowls, or in blunts-emptied cigars that have been partly or completely refilled with marijuana. Smoked marijuana, in any form, can harm lung tissues and cause scarring and damage to small blood vessels. Smoke from marijuana contains many of the same toxins, irritants, and carcinogens as tobacco smoke. Smoking marijuana can also lead to a greater risk of bronchitis, cough, and phlegm production. These symptoms generally improve when marijuana smokers quit.

Marijuana use, especially frequent (daily or near daily) use and use in high doses, can cause disorientation, and sometimes cause unpleasant thoughts or feelings of anxiety and paranoia. Marijuana use is associated with temporary psychosis (not knowing what is real, hallucinations and paranoia) and long-lasting mental health challenges, including schizophrenia (a type of mental illness where people might see or hear things that aren’t really there).

Marijuana use has also been linked to depression and anxiety, and suicide among teens. However, it is not known whether this is a causal relationship or simply an association.

Local, State, and Federal Legal Sanctions

Local, state, and federal laws establish severe penalties for the unlawful possession or distribution of illicit drugs and alcohol. These sanctions, upon conviction, may range from a fine and probation to lengthy imprisonment. In the case of possession or distribution of illegal drugs these sanctions could include seizure and the summary forfeiture of property, including vehicles. It is especially important to know that recent federal laws have increased the penalties for illegally distributing drugs to include life imprisonment and fines in excess of $1,000,000. Some other examples of the laws include:

  • Unlawful possession of any controlled substance is punishable by imprisonment in the state prison.
  • The purchase, possession or consumption of any alcoholic beverages (including beer and wine) by any person under the age of 21 is prohibited.
  • It is unlawful to provide alcohol to a person under the age of 21.
  • Selling or serving alcohol to an intoxicated person is prohibited.
  • Any person found in a public place to be under the influence of an intoxicating liquor or drug and unable to care for his/her own safety or interfering with the use of a public way is guilty of disorderly conduct, which is a misdemeanor.
  • Selling, either directly or indirectly, any alcoholic beverages except under the authority of a California Alcoholic Beverage Control License is prohibited. This includes selling glasses, mixes, ice, or tickets for admission.
  • Possession of an alcoholic beverage in an open container in a motor vehicle or on a bicycle is unlawful, regardless of who is driving or whether one is intoxicated.
  • Driving a motor vehicle or bicycle while under the influence of alcohol is unlawful.

Students should also be advised that the manufacture, use or provision of a false state identification card or drivers license is prohibited.

California State Laws are available at the Honnold/Mudd Library in the annual publication of West Annotated California Codes.

Health Risks Associated with the Use of Illicit Drugs and the Abuse of Alcohol

The use of any mind or mood-altering substance, including alcohol, can lead to psychological dependence, which is defined as a need or craving for the substance and feelings of restlessness, tension, or anxiety when the substance is not used. In addition, with many substances, use can lead to physical tolerance, characterized by the need for increasing amounts of the substance to achieve the same effect, and/or physical dependence, characterized by the onset of unpleasant or painful physiological symptoms when the substance is no longer being used. As tolerance and psychological or physical dependence develop, judgment becomes impaired and people often do not realize they are losing control over the use of the substance and that they need help.

Alcohol acts as a depressant to the central nervous system and can cause serious short and long-term damage. Short-term effects include nausea, vomiting, and ulcers; more chronic abuse can lead to brain, liver, kidney, and heart damage and even eventual death. Ingesting a large amount of alcohol at one time can lead to alcohol poisoning, coma, and death. Drugs such as LSD, amphetamines, marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol alter emotion, cognition, perception, physiology, and behavior in a variety or ways. Health risks include but are not limited to depression, apathy, hallucinations, paranoia, and impaired judgment. Abuse of either alcohol or drugs during pregnancy increases the risk of birth defects, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirths.

It is impossible to accurately predict how an individual will react to a specific drug or to alcohol because effects vary depending on the person, environmental variables, the dosage and potency of the substance, the method of taking the substance, the chronicity or use, and whether the substance is taken in conjunction with other substances. Illegal drugs have particularly unpredictable effects due to variability in dosage and purity. When two or more substances are combined, there is often an effect that is stronger than their additive sum.

Assistance for Alcohol Abuse and/or Drug Use Problems

The Claremont Colleges are committed to education and counseling as the primary focus of their substance abuse programs and provide confidential, professional assistance for students. Students are urged to seek information and help regarding substance abuse for themselves or their friends. A variety of services including counseling, educational materials, and/or referrals are available at the following offices:

  • Health Education Outreach – Tranquada Student Services Center, 757 College Way, 909-607-3602 or 621-8871
  • Monsour Counseling and Psychological Services – Tranquada Student Services Center, 757 College Way, 909-621-8202
  • Student Health Services – Tranquada Student Services Center, 757 College Way, 909- 621-8222
  • Chaplains of The Claremont Colleges- McAlister Center for Religious Activities, 919 N. Columbia Avenue, 909-621-8985
  • Dean of Students and Campus Life – Harper Hall East, 160 E. 10th Street, 909-621-8965

To protect students’ privacy, information regarding a student during participation in any related program is treated as confidential.

Local, State, and Federal Legal Sanctions

Local, state and federal laws establish severe penalties for unlawful possession or distribution of illegal drugs and alcohol.  These sanctions, upon conviction, may range from a fine to life imprisonment. In the case of possession and distribution of illegal drugs, these sanctions could include seizure and summary forfeiture of property, including vehicles. It is especially important to know that federal penalties for illegally distributing drugs include life imprisonment and fines in excess of $1 million.

The following is a brief summary of some of the state and federal criminal sanctions that may be imposed upon someone who violates the alcohol and other drug policy at CGU or elsewhere in the state of California.

  • A violation of California law for the unlawful sale of alcohol may include imprisonment in the county jail for six months, plus fines and penalties.
  • A violation of California law for the possession, use and/or sale of narcotics, marijuana and/or other illicit drugs includes imprisonment in the county jail or state prison for one to nine years, plus fines up to $100,000 for each count.
  • A violation of federal law for the possession, use and/or sale of narcotics, marijuana and/or other illicit drugs may include imprisonment in the federal penitentiary for one to fifteen years plus substantial financial penalties.
  • A violation of the law involving an individual being under the influence of a combination of alcohol and other drugs (itself potentially deadly), may result in an increase in criminal sanctions and penalties.
  • The purchase, possession or consumption of any alcoholic beverages (including beer and wine) by any person under the age of 21 is prohibited.
  • It is unlawful to provide alcohol to a person under the age of 21.
  • Selling or serving alcohol to an intoxicated person is prohibited.
  • Any person found in a public place to be under the influence of an intoxicating liquor or drug and unable to care for his/her own safety or interfering with the use of a public way is guilty of disorderly conduct, which is a misdemeanor.
  • Selling, either directly or indirectly, any alcoholic beverages except under the authority of a California Alcoholic Beverage Control License is prohibited. This includes selling glasses, mixes, ice, or tickets for admission.
  • Possession of an alcoholic beverage in an open container in a motor vehicle or on a bicycle is unlawful, regardless of who is driving or whether one is intoxicated.
  • Driving a motor vehicle or bicycle while under the influence of alcohol is unlawful.

Students should also be advised that the manufacture, use or provision of a false state identification card or driver’s license is prohibited.

Sanctions

The University will impose sanctions on individuals and organizations that violate this Policy. These sanctions will be consistently enforced and penalties will depend on the severity of the offense. The Provost, and Associate Vice President and Dean of Students will deal with violations and disciplinary action.

Penalties can include expulsion from the University and referral for prosecution for violations of the law. A student who is found to be selling illegal drugs may be suspended or expelled from the University, even for a first offense. Sanctions for less severe offenses may include, but are not limited to, the following:

Verbal and written warnings, the completion of an appropriate rehabilitation program, and suspension for the repeat offender. An event may be closed immediately or other intervention may be taken to correct a violation. Disciplinary action may be invoked entirely apart from any civil or criminal penalties that the student might incur.

California Legal Statues regarding Alcohol and Other Drugs

Members of the CGU community are expected to be familiar with federal, state and local laws regarding alcohol and other drugs. The following list is provided as a reference but is not all inclusive:

  • Possession for Sale of Marijuana (California Health & Safety Code section 11359)
  • Transportation of Marijuana (California Health & Safety Code section 11360)
  • Possession of Drug Paraphernalia (California Health & Safety Code section 11364)
  • Unauthorized Possession of Controlled Substances (California Health & Safety Code sections 11350 & 11377)
  • Possession for Sale of Controlled Substances (California Health & Safety Code sections 11351 & 11378)
  • Transportation of Controlled Substances (California Health & Safety Code sections 11352 & 11379)
  • Possession with intent to manufacture methamphetamine (California Health & Safety Code section 11383)
  • Serving a minor alcohol (California Business & Professions Code 25658(a))
  • Using false ID to demonstrate age of majority (California Business & Professions Code 25661(a))
  • Serving/furnishing alcohol to obviously intoxicated person (California Business & Professions Code 25602(a))
  • Driving while intoxicated (California Vehicle Code 23152(a))
  • Federal Omnibus Drug Initiative of 1988:  Gives courts the authority to suspend eligibility for Federal student aid when sentencing an individual convicted of possession or distribution of a controlled substance.

Guide to California alcohol statutes: https://alcoholpolicy.niaaa.nih.gov/apis-policy-topics